The National Academies: Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
Current Operating Status

The National Academies Testimony before Congress

Public Laws Containing Studies for the National Academies

Briefings to Congress

Congressionally Mandated Reports

Policy Statements and Historical Documents

The OCGA staff

Request a Report (Congressional and Government Staff Only)


Mailing Address:
The Office of Congressional and Government Affairs
The Keck Center of the National Academies
Keck WS1008
500 Fifth Street, NW
Washington, DC 20001
Tel: (202) 334-1601
Fax: (202) 334-2419

Back to Main Page


Title of Law:Science, State, Justice, Commerce, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2006
Law #:Public Law 109-108
Passed by Congress:109th Congress (1st Session)

The following are excerpts, highlighted in red, from the final legislation and/or conference report which contain references to The National Academies and studies. (Pound signs [##] between passages denote the deletion of unrelated text.)

HR2862 Wolf (R.-Va.) 11/16/05
Enrolled (finally passed both houses)

An original bill making appropriations for Science, the Departments of State, Justice, and Commerce, and related agencies for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2006, and for other purposes.
-- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---

######

SEC. 628. (a) IN GENERAL.—The President of the United States through his designee the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and in consultation with other Federal agencies shall develop a national aeronautics policy to guide the aeronautics programs of the Administration through 2020.

(b) CONTENT.—At a minimum, the national aeronautics policy shall describe—

(1) the priority areas of research for aeronautics through fiscal year 2011;
(2) the basis on which and the process by which priorities for ensuing fiscal years will be selected;
(3) the facilities and personnel needed to carry out the program through fiscal year 2011; and
(4) the budget assumptions on which the national aeronautics policy is based.

(c) CONSIDERATIONS.—In developing the national aeronautics policy, the President shall consider the following questions, which shall be discussed in the policy statement—

(1) the extent to which NASA should focus on long-term, high-risk research or more incremental research or both and the expected impact on the U.S. aircraft and airline industries of those decisions;
(2) the extent to which NASA should address military and commercial needs;
(3) how NASA will coordinate its aeronautics program with other Federal agencies; and
(4) the extent to which NASA will fund university research and the expected impact of that funding on the supply of U.S. workers for the aeronautics industry.

(d) CONSULTATION.—In developing the national aeronautics policy, the Administrator shall consult widely with academic and industry experts and with other Federal agencies. The Administrator may enter into an arrangement with the National Academy of Sciences to help develop the national aeronautics policy.

(e) SCHEDULE.—The Administrator shall submit the new national aeronautics policy to the House and Senate Committees on Appropriations and to the House Committee on Science and the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation within one year of enactment of this Act. The Administrator shall make available to the Congress any study done by a non-governmental entity that was used in the development of the national aeronautics policy.

######

************************************************************************************
HRpt 109-272 - To accompany H.R. 2862
- MAKING APPROPRIATIONS FOR SCIENCE, THE DEPARTMENTS OF STATE, JUSTICE, AND COMMERCE, AND RELATED AGENCIES FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING SEPTEMBER 30, 2006, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES
Conference Committee

(11/7/05)
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---

######

TITLE VI—GENERAL PROVISIONS

######

  SEC. 628. (a) IN GENERAL.—The President of the United States through his designee the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and in consultation with other Federal agencies shall develop a national aeronautics policy to guide the aeronautics programs of the Administration through 2020.

  (b) CONTENT.—At a minimum, the national aeronautics policy shall describe—

(1) the priority areas of research for aeronautics through fiscal year 2011;
(2) the basis on which and the process by which priorities for ensuing fiscal years will be selected;
(3) the facilities and personnel needed to carry out the program through fiscal year 2011; and
(4) the budget assumptions on which the national aeronautics policy is based.

  (c) CONSIDERATIONS.—In developing the national aeronautics policy, the President shall consider the following questions, which shall be discussed in the policy statement—

(1) the extent to which NASA should focus on long-term, high-risk research or more incremental research or both and the expected impact on the U.S. aircraft and airline industries of those decisions;
(2) the extent to which NASA should address military and commercial needs;
(3) how NASA will coordinate its aeronautics program with other Federal agencies; and
(4) the extent to which NASA will fund university research and the expected impact of that funding on the supply of U.S. workers for the aeronautics industry.

  (d) CONSULTATION.—In developing the national aeronautics policy, the Administrator shall consult widely with academic and industry experts and with other Federal agencies. The Administrator may enter into an arrangement with the National Academy of Sciences to help develop the national aeronautics policy.

  (e) SCHEDULE.—The Administrator shall submit the new national aeronautics policy to the House and Senate Committees on Appropriations and to the House Committee on Science and the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation within one year of enactment of this Act. The Administrator shall make available to the Congress any study done by a non-governmental entity that was used in the development of the national aeronautics policy.

######

TITLE I—DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE

GENERAL ADMINISTRATION

SALARIES AND EXPENSES

######

Radiation Exposure Compensation.The conferees direct the Department to submit a report, within 90 days of enactment, to the Committees on Appropriations detailing those actions that the Department and the Congress can take to implement the recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences’ report on the coverage of affected populations by the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (Public Law 108-375).

######

COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES

(INCLUDING TRANSFER OF FUNDS)

######

DNA and Forensics.The conference agreement includes $108,531,000 for a DNA analysis and capacity enhancement program including eliminating casework backlogs, eliminating offender backlogs, strengthening crime lab capacity, training of the criminal justice community and identifying missing persons. Within the amounts provided, $5,000,000 shall be for OLES to continue working with the COPS office to develop minimum standards for equipment and testing for forensic science labs.

In addition, the conference agreement provides $18,500,000 for Paul Coverdell Forensic Sciences Improvement Grants. Within the amounts provided for Paul Coverdell Forensic Sciences Improvement Grants, $1,500,000 is for the National Academy of Sciences to conduct a study on forensic science, as described in the Senate report.

######

PROCUREMENT, ACQUISITION AND CONSTRUCTION

The conference agreement includes $1,124,278,000 under this heading, instead of $936,000,000 as proposed by the House and $1,195,017,000 as proposed by the Senate.

The conferees remain concerned about the safety of NOAA employees at the Southwest Fisheries Science Center, and language is included providing the Secretary of Commerce the option to enter into negotiations with the University of California for a long-term lease. Any construction, however, will require future appropriation of funds. The conferees emphasize that the Administration should assess this safety issue and should include a proposal in a formal budget request, if warranted. No funds are provided in this Act for the design or construction of a new facility.

The conference agreement includes, by reference, language in the House report regarding radiosonde replacement, a report on the cost and risk implications of delays in the development of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS), the National Research Council report on Earth Science and Applications from Space, and the Coastal and Estuarine Land Conservation Program. The conference agreement includes, by reference, language included in the Senate report regarding the Coastal and Estuarine Land Protection program, the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act, NOAA ships, and NOAA aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles.

Of the amounts provided for small boats, funding is included to procure two 51-foot highly stable craft for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary.

The conference agreement includes language regarding the incremental construction of the NOAA Pacific Regional Center.

The following distribution reflects the activities funded within this account:

######

SCIENCE, AERONAUTICS AND EXPLORATION

(INCLUDING TRANSFER OF FUNDS)

######

The conferees agree to the following:

1. The conference agreement adopts, by reference, the House report language accompanying H.R. 2862 with respect to earth-orbit crossing asteroids and the Senate report language with respect to the National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, EOSDIS, Centennial Challenges, and alternative small spacecraft technologies. In addition, both the House and Senate urge NASA to continue its technology and education collaboration with the American Museum of Natural History.

######

10. The conferees note that the National Academy of Sciences, Solar System Exploration Decadal Survey of planetary scientists concluded that the highest priority of the scientific community is an orbiter/lander mission to Jupiter’s moon Europa. The Administration supported just such a mission, and had proposed that the first or second mission of the Prometheus Nuclear Systems and Technology Program would be the Jupiter Icy Moons Mission (JIMO). NASA no longer plans a JIMO mission for Project Prometheus because of funding and technical considerations, and because the NASA Administrator has determined that funding is needed to implement the President’s vision for space exploration. Recognizing that these deep space missions usually take a decade to complete from design to orbit, the conferees support NASA moving forward with a conventionally powered mission to Jupiter as soon as possible. Therefore, the conferees direct NASA to begin planning for this mission and to incorporate a new start for a non-nuclear Europa mission as part of its fiscal year 2007 budget request.

######

RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES

The conference agreement includes $4,387,520,000 for the Research and Related Activities account, instead of $4,377,520,000 as proposed by the House and $4,345,213,000 as proposed by the Senate.

The conference agreement includes language allowing funds under this heading to be available for polar icebreaking services. The conferees expect the NSF to reimburse the United States Coast Guard for such services pursuant to a memorandum of agreement. The conference agreement includes, by reference, language in the House report regarding the submission of a report on alternatives for long-term icebreaking needs and future options for supporting the United States presence in the Antarctic.

The conference agreement includes, by reference, language in the House report on innovation inducement prizes. The conference agreement also includes, by reference, language in the Senate report on the Plant Genome Research program and radio astronomy.

The conferees agree that funding for the Children’s Research Initiative research centers program shall continue at least at the fiscal year 2005 level. The conferees commend NSF for its Silicon Nanoelectronics and Beyond program and its partnership with the Nanoelectronics Research Initiative, which involves the sponsorship of research in the areas of information technology and electronics. The conferees encourage NSF to continue its support for such research in fiscal year 2006 at the same level as fiscal year 2005.

######

************************************************************************************
HRpt 109-88 - To accompany H.R. 2862
- DEPARTMENTS OF COMMERCE AND JUSTICE, SCIENCE, AND RELATED AGENCIES APPROPRIATIONS BILL, 2006
Senate Appropriations

(6/23/05)
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---

######

CRIME-FIGHTING TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAMS

######

DNA and Forensics Initiative.—The Committee recommends $89,500,000 to assist in forensics and DNA. Within the amounts provided, OJP may apply up to 5 percent of the total funds to support the continuation of the development of standards and Standard Reference Materials at the NIST OLES, to maintain quality and proficiency within Federal, State, and local crime laboratory facilities.

The Committee has reviewed the Bureau of Justice Statistics [BJS] Census of Publicly Funded Forensic Crime Laboratories and the NIJ “Status and Needs of Forensic Science Services: A Report to Congress”. The report identifies that the backlog in forensic science labs is not limited to DNA. In fact, these studies demonstrate a disturbing trend of increased cases and increased backlog in all disciplines of forensic science.

According to the BJS Census, a typical lab finished the year with a backlog of about 650 requests, which was an increase of 73 percent from 2001 and 73 percent of the total backlogged requests at year end 2002 were attributable to controlled substances (46 percent), latent prints (17 percent), and DNA analysis (10 percent). Further, the study concluded that only 2 percent of all new requests were in the area of DNA analysis. The budget request proposes to allocate 100 percent of the Federal funds for forensic science to DNA even though it represents only 2 percent of the workload identified in the study. Further, these data do not include the Nation’s medical examiners and coroners who are responsible for investigating all homicides.

Based on the study’s findings, the budget should allocate funds to all disciplines as opposed to just one. The results of these studies are indicative of a larger problem within the forensic science and legal community: the absence of data. While a great deal of analysis exists of the requirements in the discipline of DNA, there exists little to no analysis of the remaining needs of the community outside of the area of DNA. Therefore, within the funds provided for the DNA and Forensics Initiative the Committee directs the Attorney General to provide $1,500,000 to the National Academy of Sciences to create an independent Forensic Science Committee. This Committee shall include members of the forensics community representing operational crime laboratories, medical examiners, and coroners; legal experts; and other scientists as determined appropriate. The National Academy of Sciences Committee shall: (1) assess the present and future resource needs of the forensic science community, to include State and local crime labs, medical examiners, and coroners; (2) make recommendations for maximizing the use of forensic technologies and techniques to solve crimes, investigate deaths, and protect the public; (3) identify potential scientific advances that may assist law enforcement in using forensic technologies and techniques to protect the public; (4) make recommendations for programs that will increase the number of qualified forensic scientists and medical examiners available to work in public crime laboratories; (5) disseminate best practices and guidelines concerning the collection and analysis of forensic evidence to help ensure quality and consistency in the use of forensic technologies and techniques to solve crimes, investigate deaths, and protect the public; (6) examine the role of the forensic community in the homeland security mission; (7) interoperability of Automated Fingerprint Information Systems; and (8) examine additional issues pertaining to forensic science as determined by the Committee. The National Academy shall issue its report to the Committees on Appropriations no later than June 1, 2006.

Paul Coverdell Forensic Sciences Improvement Grants.—The Committee recommendation provides $22,000,000 for the Paul Coverdell Forensic Sciences Improvement Grants.

######

************************************************************************************
HRpt 109-118 - To accompany H.R. 2862
– SCIENCE, STATE, JUSTICE, COMMERCE, AND RELATED AGENCIES APPROPRIATIONS BILL, FISCAL YEAR 2006
House Appropriations

(6/10/05)
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---

######

RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES

The Committee recommends a total of $4,377,520,000 for Research and Related Activities. The recommendation is $156,964,000 above the fiscal year 2005 level and $44,030,000 above the request.

The recommendation does not include specific funding allocations for each directorate or for individual programs and activities. The Foundation is directed to submit a proposed spending plan to the Committee for its consideration within 30 days of enactment of this Act that addresses the Foundation’s highest priority research requirements. This spending plan shall be subject to the reprogramming procedures in section 605 of this Act.

Language is included that provides up to $425,000,000 for Polar research and operations support, as requested. The recommended funding level in this account acknowledges the decision of the Administration to shift funding for polar icebreaking from the budget of the Coast Guard to that of the NSF. Language is included allowing the NSF Director to use funds under this account to reimburse the Coast Guard for services provided in support of the NSF’s mission. Additional language is included requiring that any such reimbursement be treated as a reprogramming of funds under section 605. The Committee believes that burdening the NSF with the responsibility for maintenance and long-term modernization costs of the Coast Guard icebreaking fleet would irresponsibly jeopardize the nation’s primary source of funding for critical basic scientific research. While using Coast Guard capabilities may be necessary to meet fiscal year 2006 requirements, the Committee expects NSF to immediately begin a concurrent pursuit of alternative, more economical, icebreaking solutions for 2006 and beyond. The Committee directs NSF to pursue the most cost-effective means of obtaining icebreaking services in the Antarctic for the 2005-2006 season, including, but not limited to, reimbursing the Coast Guard on a mutually agreed upon basis for the operations and maintenance of the U.S. polar icebreaking fleet. NSF is specifically given the flexibility to pursue alternatives to current operations. Should NSF continue to utilize the Coast Guard for icebreaking capabilities in fiscal year 2006, the Committee would expect NSF to model a reimbursement agreement with the Coast Guard on their successful Memorandum of Understanding with the Defense Department.

The Committee is aware of studies currently underway to review the Nation’s icebreaking needs and to examine options for supporting the presence the United States has maintained in the Antarctic for the past four decades. The Committee directs NSF to immediately inform the Committee when the results and recommendations from these studies become available. The Committee anticipates a preliminary report on options for meeting long-term icebreaking needs from the National Academies in September. No later than December 31, 2005, the Committee expects a report from the Office of Polar Programs advisory committee outlining options and potential costs for alternative means of providing logistical support to the McMurdo and South Pole stations in the event that icebreaking capabilities are not available.

The Committee commends NSF for its Silicon Nanoelectronics and Beyond program which involves the sponsorship of research in the areas of information technology and electronics. The Committee encourages NSF to continue the support of such research in fiscal year 2006.

The Committee is aware that NSF’s Children Research Initiative has assisted important interdisciplinary collaborations that are making important contributions to research in child development. The Committee expects NSF to continue its research efforts in this area in FY 2006.

The recommendation includes language that allows funds provided under this account to be available for innovation inducement prizes. The concept of inducement awards to encourage broad involvement in solving a specifically stated scientific problem has been a catalyst for scientific advancement since at least the early 18th century. In 1999, a National Academies workshop on this topic encouraged Federal agencies to make more extensive use of this mechanism to pursue particular scientific and technological objectives. The Committee expects NSF to engage the National Academies to craft a prize or categories of prizes that would be of an appropriate scale and to develop the rules and conditions for awarding prizes, and to report back to the Committee on plans to initiate a prize program in fiscal year 2006. The Committee strongly encourages NSF to use this mechanism, particularly in programs that specifically emphasize innovation, to focus on high risk/high payoff research projects. The Committee also expects NSF to encourage private sector involvement in the effort to create a prize program.

######

RSS News Feed | Subscribe to e-newsletters | Feedback | Back to Top